The first 142,000 doses of the Pfizer vaccine have landed in Australia, arriving just after noon on Monday.
Health Minister Greg Hunt made the announcement on Monday afternoon.
"They will now be subject to security, quality assurance, in particular to ensure that temperature maintenance has been preserved throughout the course of the flight, to ensure the integrity of the doses, and to ensure there has been no damage," he said.
The Therapeutic Goods Administration will now start batch testing before the first doses are made available next week.
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Rollout will begin Monday, but not all 142,000 doses will make it into arms next week. The government will keep behind 62,000 doses to ensure they are available for second doses, in case there are any issues with supply in the coming weeks.
Mr Hunt said of the 80,000 doses to be available next week, 60 per cent would be given to the states and territories.
"That means they well be able to begin with the priority for hotel quarantine, they will also be focusing on other related workers, those that are most likely to come into contact with positive international arrivals. That has been recognised by the states and territories, and we agree with this, as the greatest risk of bringing the disease into the country."
The remaining 30,000 doses will go to aged care facilities, a rollout managed by the federal government.
Mr Hunt said the government was hoping for Therapeutic Goods Administration approval for the AstraZeneca vaccine in coming days. This would double the number of vaccine doses available each week starting in March.
The first vials have been filled of that vaccine at CSL's Broadmeadows facility today, the minister said.
"That will see one million doses a week, commencing in late March, made available, and that should see 2 million doses arrive before the end of March, and thereafter continue at one million doses per week."
The vaccine doses landed at Sydney Airport and are being securely transported for testing and distribution.
Logistics company DHL is responsible for the transport of the vaccine doses, using a network of 200 ultra-low temperature portable freezers to allow the vaccines to move safely across the country at a temperature of minus 70 degrees.